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KCC Program 2012

Korea Copyright commission (KCC) invited 3 participants in the copyright field from Philippines, Thailand and  Indonesia  to join the Cultural Partnership Initiative CPI program in 2012. I am very glad and happy becoming as one of participant representative from my country (Indonesia) on that program. CPI as an organization who always arrange everything for me and give me opportunity to visit KCC to learn many things related with copyright. But not only copyright matter, during that time (6 month) i learned  also about korean culture, arts, industry, tourism, and physical education.

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Source : KCC Program 2012 <—-

Time goes by so fast, people go in and go out from my life but memory still remains. I am very lucky to have a lot of friends from around the world in korea, especially my copyright friends : Maytaya Phimngam from Thailand and Flor Michelle from Phillippines. I really miss all of you and i hope we can meet again in the future as copyright expert.

Ankara, Turkey 2017

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Posted by on April 10, 2017 in Office

 

JEPARA CRAFTS AS TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE

Traditional Knowledge Assignment At Ankara University – Turkey

Keyword : Find Example, Describe it, Who are the guardian it, The value and importance, The threat and How to classify it in your country.

By : Krissantyo Adi

Backgrounds

History of the carving in Jepara began in the reign of Queen Kalinyamat.  From a tradition of expertise inheritance carve ancestor of society Jepara. At first he used stone as the material to make some sculpture. By the time, the local communities  knowledge increased more and people in jepara are interested in learning to carve. The craftsmen prefer to use Teak and Mahogany wood as basic materials for their furniture carving. Because jepara is town in the province of Central Java, Indonesia near by Mount Muria where have a lot of Teak and Mahony tree. Both types of wood have good quality mainly used as ingredients carved furniture, and until now sculpture has a very important role in Jepara people’s lives. The craftsmen and persons engaged in industrial activities sculpture are now prospering which is prosperity of the community life is sustained by the Jepara carving industry.

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Photo by : Google map

This nation is proud to have a small town in north coastal of the Java’s island Indonesia that has its own uniqueness of wood carving artists with works that are very artistic and elegant furniture. The district of Jepara in Central Java Indonesia has a long tradition in manufacturing of furniture. People in Jepara has innovation, skills and knowledge know-how to carving and make sculpture or furniture by generation to generation.

Example of TK

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Video source :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=piGyvobXjDI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x214v3ZS-Os

Describe of TK

In Java province has a lot of Teak and Mahony forest. Most of people on there using that kind of tree wood for daily needs for example make their house, ornament of house and furniture. But if we look an example at the pictures above, the people jepara can able to create a horse sculpture made from roots of teak tree with their innovation, knowledge and skills, where previously the tree roots its worthless and only used for material firewood to supply for cooking. They can make horse sculpture for medium size within one weeks and for large size within one month and many country buy their works such as America, Europe and Australia with various price. The prices for one sculpture around 1.500.000 rupiahs until 15.000.000 rupiahs or 112 USD until 1123 USD its depend on the size of sculptures.

Who are the guardian of TK

Not only sculpture, there is any well-known for high quality furniture produced by large numbers of small businesses. Because of  wood material they had its very good quality and also people innovation, knowledge and skills  in Jepara itself.  There are around 3,500 small and medium sized manufacturers in this sector. The products of the area are sold in the domestic market as well as for export. These activities will not run properly without the help of the local government and people of jepara itself.

The value and importance

Jepara is known for its furniture industry, notably the teak furniture. The industry employs approximately 80,000 people, working in a large number of mainly small workshops. The trade has brought considerable prosperity to Jepara, well above the average for Central Java. And now jepara has a nickname as “The World Carving Center”.

The threat and How to classify of TK

Nowadays, many Jepara carvers had a hard time adjusting competition in price from other country such as China, and competition in quality, from furniture manufacturers elsewhere in Java created further hardships. And also Indonesia’s teak and mahogany forests are under threat. If they disappear, so too, will the centuries-old skill of wood carving and furniture making. Fierce competition with China is creating a higher demand for raw materials, and unsustainable logging practices may one day mean there is no more teak wood left to carve. How to classify it? I think we can classify it as Traditional Knowledge or Indication Geographic, because their works has speciality environment and also the people and local government Jepara has some sustainable activities program such as transfer knowledge to the youth generation, provide an environment, replanting teak and mahogany plant as a materials and documented for all Jepara people works as traditional knowledge. In that way, the activity will remain stable and sustainable.

This pictures below, gave me an inspiration to make assignment about Traditional Knowledge.

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Photo : At Meshur Tavaci Recepusta Restaurant – 13 February 2017, Ankara

Reference :

 

 
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Posted by on February 20, 2017 in Office

 

Relationship Between Intellectual Property Rights And Economic Development

What is the relationship between intellectual property rights
and economic development?

By : Krissantyo Adi

Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands. With an estimated population over 252 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populous country. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. More than 300 ethnic groups and 746 linguistic groups. It encompasses 34 provinces, and every provinces are made up of regencies and cities which has a diverse cultural treasures, rich of arts and culture industry to increase a strong economic community.

The biggest fourth most population country in the world with over 252 million people, surely become one of strengths factor of a country with many opportunities for further growth. However, Indonesia still have a challenges and weaknesses in many factors such as huge infrastructure gaps, low financial, a weakly education and poorly performing innovation system.

Intellectual property rights are important for building up these innovation capacities. We know innovation plays a pivotal role in economic development but, Indonesia as developing countries have recognized that innovation is not just about high-technology products, but that innovation capacity has to be built into the early stages of the development process to gain the learning capacities that will allow adoption of foreign technology requires adaptation to the local context also need innovation capacity to address developmental challenges specific to local contexts.

With diverse cultural treasures, rich of arts, culture industry and socio-economic context of Indonesia and has special characteristics of its innovation system are crucial as the capacity of intellectual property rights to support innovation in this country. For an example Indonesia has Innovators in traditional and informal sectors while traditional “batik” textiles, traditional furniture and many of indication geographic product have export potential but only a few batik factories, furniture manufacturers or indication geographic product have developed successful branding strategies.

Traditional producers are often not aware of business opportunities based on product differentiation and branding. Moreover, the widespread perception of limited knowledge of patent, copyright, industrial design and trademark it’s so weak. Also, industry associations are not actively involved to support firms that are generally small, have limited resources, and lack sufficient skills to develop and implement these strategies on their own.

Since signing the Trade-Related Intellectual (TRIPs) Agreement in 1994, Indonesia became a member of the TRIPs and the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1 January 1995. Nowadays, under that agreement, Indonesia has been harmonize and revise several of its intellectual property laws. Such as Trade Secret law 30 Year 2000,  Industrial Design Law 31 Year 2000, Layout Design Intergrated Circuit Law 32 Year 2000, Copyrights Law 28 Year 2014, Patent Law 13 Year 2016 and Trademark and Geographical Indication Law 20 Year 2016.

Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights (DGIPR) as the governmental institution which has the authority to administer and develop the intellectual property rights system in Indonesia. The institution is in charge of granting and promoting the use of copyright and industrial property rights. Sometimes some people consider intellectual property rights are not necessary. However, the intellectual property rights are in fact useful to protect the businessmen from the possibility of unauthorized use of the rights.

Intellectual property rights can creates exclusive rights for holders, which can result in substantial monetary rewards if the creativity and innovation of invention meets with market and also serving the public good with success. We know the intellectual property rights purpose to provide an incentive for people and businesses to create new creativities or inventions, while allowing others to create new ideas to improve those inventions in fields relating to technology (patents), the arts (copyright), design (industrial design) and business (trademarks). Therefore, it is important for rights holders, the trader or exporter to prepare the products in relation to the intellectual property rights before conducting trade or export activities that the products receive legal protection.

Legal protection of intellectual property rights has effect to contributes enormously every country economies in the world. Dozens of industries across our economy rely on the adequate enforcement of their patents, copyright, industrial design rights and trademarks, while consumers use intellectual property rights to ensure they are purchasing safe, guaranteed products. We believe intellectual property rights are worth protecting and have tight relationship between economic development of country, both domestically and abroad.

References :

  1. https://krissantyo.wordpress.com/2015/10/30/cultural-partnership-initiative-cpi-as-a-method-and-concept-to-develop-traditional-cultural-expressions/
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIPS_Agreement
  3. https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/indonesia_e.htm
  4. http://www.dgip.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=115
  5. http://djpen.kemendag.go.id/app_frontend/contents/43-intellectual-property-rights
  6. http://www.theglobalipcenter.com/why-are-intellectual-property-rights-important/

 

 
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Posted by on January 5, 2017 in Office

 

Cultural Partnership Initiative (CPI) as a Method and Concept to Develop Traditional Cultural Expressions.

By : Krissantyo

Backgrounds

Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands. With an estimated total population of over 252 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most-populous country. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. More than 300 ethnic groups and 746 linguistic groups. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism cultures. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia’s republican form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. It encompasses 34 provinces, and every provinces are made up of regencies and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies to develop each region which has a diverse cultural treasures, rich of arts and culture industry to increase a strong economic community. However , it does not run optimally for the welfare of the population in each region respectively.

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO Members. The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property law, specifically TRIPS provide Copyright Law which is there are any protection for Traditional Cultural Expressions (folklore) and copyright to a work of Unknown Authors.

Definition folklore given by WIPO and UNESCO : “Expression of folklore means productions consisting of characteristic elements of the traditional artistic heritage developed and maintain by a community of (a country) or by individuals reflecting the traditional artistic expectations of such a community, in particular: verbal expressions, such as folk tales, folk poetry and riddles; musical expressions, such as folk songs and instrumental music; expressions by action, such as folk dances, plays and artistic forms or rituals; whether or not reduced to material form; and tangible expressions, such as: productions of folk art, in particular, drawings, paintings, carvings, sculptures, pottery, terracotta, mosaic, woodwork, metalware, jewellery, basket weaving, needlework, textiles, carpets, costumes; musical instruments; architectural forms.”

Traditional Cultural Expressions (folklore) has been discussed with great importance in terms of promoting sustainable development for communities and the enhancement of accessibility of information on intangible cultural heritage. WIPO established the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) in 2001 which discussed subject matters pertaining to Intellectual Property Rights, Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore. In particular, WIPO recognizes the system of Traditional Knowledge and the artistic expressions developed by communities as intellectual properties and is seeking a way to grant intellectual property rights and assume that Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions (folklore) as a public domain of Intellectual Property can be protected by a government. It may become very important matters, because Traditional Cultural Expressions (folklore) very valuable for economic growth in every country.

Why CPI can be called as a Method to Developing Traditional Cultural Expressions?

Base on Website Cultural Partnership Initiative (C.P.I) backgrounds, CPI is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Korea (M.C.S.T) to prepare the space for cultural interchange among Asia, Latin America and Africa. The MCST promotes and develops various projects reaching the diverse areas of culture, art, tourism, sports, leisure, religion, and the press in order to enhance the quality of life and to open up the new millennium era through the power of art and culture.

The CPI objectives for the development of cultural arts with promote cultural exchange through actively supporting cultural activities The MCST has been conducting the ‘CPI Project’ through better support and bilateral cultural exchange.

The CPI expectation for a balanced cultural exchange in the future will be based on mutuality between countries, both of which possess cultural resources and potential. As a result, each country is able to keep its cultural identity while gaining mutually beneficial value.

The CPI provides an opportunity for professionals in Asian cultural arts to fully develop their potential as well as showcase their achievements. Also, they can be inspired by new ideas and develop the understanding as well as tolerance for cultural differences. Promotion of cultural exchange. It serves as a window for cultural exchange among Asian countries, as well as creating the foundation for new cultures.

The CPI has scope global, and it works! and producing alumnae from other country especially from Indonesia around 50 person since 2006 until 2014. Most of alumnae is a professional in the workplace, as a government employee, public sector, lecturer, artist, etc. They gained knowledge from CPI and adopting CPI experience as a method and concept to promote their works.

CPI Anniversary

Pictures : 10th Anniversary of CPI

Illustration pictures CPI Community and Indonesia Community

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Source : http://www.culturefriends.or.kr/community.do

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Picture : Indonesia Community

While Indonesia has an incredibly rich and diverse culture spread over thousands of islands, most organize cultural institutions and networks are centered in Java. Outside these hubs, there are fewer open spaces and cultural institutions available. That creates possibilities for further development and enhancement of art and culture networks outside Java. Indonesia having a booming economy and political focus on this area provides fertile ground for development of sustainable cultural and creative industries. Indonesia government with stake holders already running the activities to developing of traditional cultural expressions (folklore), although the implementation is still having some problems and obstacles.

Make Strategy To Developing Traditional Cultural Expressions

What Is Strategy?

Definition strategy : A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem. A SWOT analysis is a strategic balance sheet of an organization; that is the strengths of the organization, the weaknesses of the organization, the opportunities facing the organization, and the threats facing the organization.

SWOT Analysis

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
· Big Population

· More than 300 ethnic groups

· CPI Alumnae

· Big Area

· lack of funding : we require equity

investment

· Lack of technology : collecting, sharing,

transforming use technology

· Lack of coordinating : Bureaucracy issue

OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
· Big Market

· Research and Development of Culture

· CPI As Method and Concept : CPI alumnae

as agent of development

 

 

· Global Competition

· Degradation, Abstention and ignorance of

Culture

· Other influence method and concept

The objectives how to increase understanding and appreciation of the people of Indonesia regarding cultural values which have developed in all districts, as a basis for culture-conscious development which has to be carried out among others. Indonesia require equity investment in other to fund all of activities. For the first step we should make data inventory and record all the cultural elements of traditional cultural expressions (folklore) using manual and online system and its utilization by stakeholders. This inventory shall benefits government, researcher, educator, business as well as public.

Further Programs :

  • Strengthen the Nation character and Cultural Values
  • Implement the policies on the development of cultural values in all parts of Indonesia;
  • Enhance coordination among stakeholders on the technical and administrative services for the development of cultural values
  • Support the development of local cultural values;
  • Support the development of customs and traditions of communities;
  • Increase the safeguarding of traditions;
  • Use CPI alumnae as agent of development

 Closing remarks

CPI is a good project in connecting people to other people. It’s not only exercised by the government officials, but it can also be performed by stakeholders or anybody else. Being citizens of the world, I think we connect each other through cultural traditions. The value of culture is very important to be understood by other communities of the local or international community. We will better know each other and then we will believe each other. Cultural exchange in the future will be based on mutuality between local or between countries. As a result, each local or country is able to keep its cultural identity while gaining mutually beneficial value. CPI has connected communications, understanding is very much important in the international community and also in cooperation of several countries. So that’s way I call “CPI” as method and concept to developing traditional cultural. Thank you CPI!

 

 
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Posted by on October 30, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

MEREK LOGO Dalam Produk Hukum HKI

Hak Kekayaan Intelektual, disingkat “HKI” atau akronim “HaKI”, adalah padanan kata yang biasa digunakan untuk Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), yakni hak yang timbul bagi hasil olah pikir yang menghasikan suatu produk atau proses yang berguna untuk manusia pada intinya HKI adalah hak untuk menikmati secara ekonomis hasil dari suatu kreativitas intelektual. Objek yang diatur dalam HKI adalah karya-karya yang timbul atau lahir karena kemampuan intelektual manusia.

Secara garis besar ruang lingkup HKI dibagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu :

  1. Hak Cipta (Copyrights)
  2. Hak Kekayaan Industri (Industrial Property Rights), yang mencakup :

Merek sebagai salah satu bagian dari HKI memiliki peranan yang sangat penting karena dengan menggunakan merek atas barang-barang yang diproduksi, dapat membedakan asal-usul mengenai produk barang dan jasa. Merek juga digunakan dalam dunia periklanan dan pemasaran. Menurut Eddy Damian, publik sering mengaitkan suatu image, kualitas atau reputasi barang dan jasa dengan merek tertentu dimana merek dapat menjadi kekayaan yang sangat berharga secara komersial, dan karena adanya merek tersebut, dapat membuat harga-harga suatu produk menjadi mahal bahkan lebih bernilai dibandingkan dengan perusahaan yang memproduksinya.

Hak kekayaan intelektual yang erat kaitannya dengan merek adalah hak cipta. Hak Cipta merupakan hak eksklusif pencipta atau pemegang hak cipta untuk mengumumkan atau memperbanyak ciptaannya, yang timbul secara otomatis setelah suatu ciptaan dilahirkan. Perlindungan hak cipta bersifat otomatis dan timbul setelah suatu ciptaan diwujudkan dalam bentuk yang nyata.

Pada Undang-undang Hak cipta No. 19 Tahun 2002 Tentang Hak Cipta memberikan perlindungan terhadap karya-karya cipta di bidang seni, sastra dan ilmu pengetahuan. Ciptaan yang dilindungi antara lain buku, program komputer, pamflet, lagu atau musik, rekaman suara, lukisan, gambar (LOGO), foto, seni ukir maupun seni kaligrafi. Namun demikian, merek dalam beberapa hal bersinggungan dengan hak cipta. Hal ini terjadi karena untuk jenis ciptaan seperti simbol, logo, foto atau gambar bisa didaftarkan sebagai hak cipta dan juga bisa sekaligus sebagai merek.

Kepemilikan atas merek terutama yang berbentuk logo, gambar atau sejenisnya, berpotensi bermasalah di kemudian hari apabila si pemilik merek tidak mendaftarkan logo tersebut untuk mendapatkan hak atas merek dan atas hak cipta sekaligus. Bisa saja terjadi logo atau lukisan tertentu didaftarkan sebagai merek oleh seseorang sementara ada juga orang lain mendaftarkannya sebagai hak cipta.

Potensi dualisme pemilikan atas logo  akan selalu terjadi karena mekanisme pendaftaran kedua hak ini cukup berbeda. Dalam proses pendaftaran hak cipta tidak mengenal pemeriksaan substantif sehingga sangatlah mudah suatu ciptaan mendapatkan sertifikat. Pendaftaran hak dalam prakteknya selama ini, para pelaku usaha cenderung menekankan pada pendaftaran merek dan mengabaikan aspek hak cipta atas suatu merek yang hendak didaftar. Atas nama penghematan, pelaku usaha/perusahaan, seringkali mengabaikan pendaftaran hak cipta. Padahal biaya pendaftaan hak cipta tidak mahal. Tentu ini suatu penghematan berisiko tinggi, apabila dikaitkan dengan potensi dualisme kepemilikan merek yang hendak didaftarkan.

Kurangnya pemahaman mengenai perbedaan antara perlindungan Hak Cipta dan Merek menyebabkan munculnya sengketa Hak Cipta yang sesungguhnya merupakan sengketa Merek. Pada dasarnya Perlindungan Hak Cipta hanya diterapkan dalam kaitannya dengan komersialisasi Ciptaan. Ciptaan yang dimaksud dalam konteks perlindungan Hak Cipta adalah karya yang memiliki sifat khas dan pribadi yang menunjukan keasliannya dalam lapangan ilmu pengetahuan, seni, atau sastra. Dengan demikian yang menjadi objek adalah Ciptaan itu sendiri yang dikomersialkan melalui perbanyakan atau pengumuman. Sedangkan perlindungan Merek pada dasarnya bertujuan melindungi produk, baik itu berupa barang ataupun jasa, dari asosiasi yang keliru terkait sumber dari produk tersebut yang kemudian akan melindungi produsen maupun konsumen atas produk yang bersangkutan.

Menurut Undang-undang No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek, Merek sendiri didefinisikan sebagai tanda yang berupa gambar, nama, kata, huruf-huruf, angka-angka, susunan warna, atau kombinasi dari unsur-unsur tersebut yang memiliki daya pembeda dan digunakan dalam kegiatan perdagangan barang atau jasa.

Perbedaan antara kedua perlindungan diatas sering menjadi kabur terutama ketika kekayaan intelektual yang disengketakan berupa logo yang dijadikan Merek. Perlindungan ganda memang dimungkinkan terhadap logo yang dijadikan Merek namun penerapannya haruslah melihat kembali kepentingan sebenarnya dibalik klaim yang diajukan penggugat. Jika ingin melindungi sebuah Ciptaan dari tindakan yang melanggar hak eksklusif seseorang atas sebuah Ciptaan (baik hak ekonomi maupun moral) maka gunakanlah perlindungan Hak Cipta. Namun gunakanlah perlindungan Merek apabila yang ingin dilindungi adalah sebuah produk (barang maupun jasa) dari adanya pemalsuan asosiasi oleh pihak lain (kompetitor) yang dapat mengganggu tingkat penjualan maupun reputasi produk tersebut.

Dalam perkembangan HKI saat ini telah diumumkannya Undang-undang Hak Cipta baru yaitu Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta yang disahkan pada tanggal 16 Oktober 2014 menggantikan Undang-undang Hak Cipta sebelumnya yaitu Undang-undang No. 19 Tahun 2002. Ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan, khususnya pada bagian kedua CIPTAAN YANG DILINDUNG Pasal 40 Ayat (1) huruf (f) Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta menyebutkan : “Ciptaan yang dilindungi meliputi Ciptaan dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan, seni, dan sastra, terdiri atas : (f) karya seni rupa dalam segala bentuk seperti lukisan, gambar, ukiran, kaligrafi, seni pahat, patung, atau kolase”; dan pada BAB X mengenai PENCATATAN CIPTAAN DAN PRODUK HAK TERKAIT dimana pada Pasal 65 menyebutkan “Pencatatan Ciptaan tidak dapat dilakukan terhadap seni lukis yang berupa logo atau tanda pembeda yang digunakan sebagai merek dalam perdagangan barang/jasa atau digunakan sebagai lambang organisasi, badan usaha, atau badan hukum”. Dari Undang-undang Hak Cipta yang terbaru dapat menyelesaikan masalah-masalah yang sudah diuraikan sebelumnya, tetapi masih bisa menimbulkan kebingungan karena dalam Undang-undang merek No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek yang sekarang ini belum tertuangnya definisi mengenai Logo seperti apa yang tertuang secara jelas pada Undang-undang Hak Cipta No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta.

Pasal 40 Ayat (1) huruf (f) Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta menyebutkan : Ciptaan yang dilindungi meliputi Ciptaan dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan, seni, dan sastra, terdiri atas : (f) karya seni rupa dalam segala bentuk seperti lukisan, gambar, ukiran, kaligrafi, seni pahat, patung, atau kolase.

Pasal 65 Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta menyebutkan : Pencatatan Ciptaan tidak dapat dilakukan terhadap seni lukis yang berupa logo atau tanda pembeda yang digunakan sebagai merek dalam perdagangan barang/jasa atau digunakan sebagai lambang organisasi, badan usaha, atau badan hukum.

Menurut David E. Carter menjelaskan “logo adalah identitas suatu perusahaan dalam bentuk visual yang diaplikasikan dalam berbagai sarana fasilitas dan kegiatan perusahaan sebagai bentuk komunikasi visual. Logo dapat juga disebut dengan simbol, tanda gambar, merek dagang (trademark) yang berfungsi sebagai lambang identitas diri dari suatu badan usaha dan tanda pengenal yang merupakan ciri khas perusahaan”.

Pertimbangan-pertimbangan tentang logo yang baik itu harus mencakup beberapa hal sebagai berikut:

  1. Original & Desctinctive, atau memiliki nilai kekhasan, keunikan, dan daya pembeda yang jelas
  2. Legible, atau memiliki tingkat keterbacaan yang cukup tinggi meskipun diaplikasikan dalam berbagai ukuran dan media yang berbeda-beda.
  3. Simple atau sederhana, dengan pengertian mudah ditangkap dan dimengerti dalam waktu yang relatif singkat.
  4. Memorable, atau cukup mudah untuk diingat, karena keunikannya, bahkan dalam kurun waktu yang lama.
  5. Easily associated with the company, dimana logo yang baik akan mudah dihubungkan atau diasosiasikan dengan jenis usaha dan citra suatu perusahaan atau organisasi.
  6. Easily adaptable for all graphic media. Disini, faktor kemudahan mengaplikasikan (memasang) logo baik yang menyangkut bentuk fisik, warna maupun konfigurasi logo pada berbagai media grafis perlu diperhitungkan pada proses pencanangan. Hali itu untuk menghindari kesulitan-kesulitan dalam penerapannya.

Tujuan dari logo menurut David E. Carter, yaitu:

  1. Sebagai ciri khas dan identitas agar mudah dikenal oleh publik.
  2. Sebagai penunjuk karakter perusahaan di mata publik.
  3. Menginformasikan jenis usaha untuk membangun image.
  4. Merefleksikan semangat dan cita-cita perusahaan.
  5. Menumbuhkan kebanggaan di antara anggota perusahaan.

Jenis-jenis logo menurut pendapat John Murphy dan Michael Rowe yaitu :

  1. Logo berupa nama (Name only logos)
  2. Logo berupa nama dan gambar (Name/symbol logos)
  3. Logo berupa inisial/singkatan nama (Initial letter logos)
  4. Logo berupa nama dengan visual yang khusus (Pictorial name logos)
  5. Logo asosiatif (Associative logos)
  6. Logo dalam bentuk kiasan (Allusive logos)
  7. Logo dalam bentuk abstrak (Abstract logos)

Dari penjelasan diatas, kita bisa menilai bahwa Logo mempunyai pengertian, Teori, Tujuan dan Jenis-jenis yang khusus. Logo bisa berupa gambar, tulisan, atau gabungan antara keduanya. Anatomi logo bisa membantu memahami jenis dan elemen visual pembentuk logo. Surianto Rustan menjelaskan bahwa “mengetahui anatomi dan jenis logo akan mempermudah dalam menentukan logo apa yang akan dibuat dan jenis mana yang paling mewakili kepribadian entitasnya”. Per Mollerup (seperti dikutip Surianto Rustan, 2009) menjelaskan “picture mark dan letter mark, kiranya cukup memadai untuk menyebut elemen gambar dan elemen tulisan dalam sebuah logo.”

Pengertian gambar dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia adalah tiruan barang yang meliputi orang, tumbuhan, binatang, alam, dan sebagainya yang dapat dibuat dengan coretan pensil ataupun alat lain dengan media kertas dan sebagainya.

Beberapa pengertian gambar menurut Para Ahli :

Menurut Oemar Hamalik berpendapat bahwa “Gambar adalah segala sesuatu yang diwujudkan secara visual dalam bentuk dua dimensi sebagai curahan perasaan atau pikiran”.

Menurut Katherine Klipper Merseth gambar itu bernilai lebih dari seribu kata-kata, gambar juga dapat mewakili kata-kata yang ingin disampaikan bahkan gambar dapat menjadi sangat ampuh dalam menyampaikan pesan melebihi kata-kata jika digunakan dengan cerdik.

Terdapat kata “karya seni rupa dalam segala bentuk seperti lukisan, gambar” dan “seni lukis berupa logo” dalam Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta menandakan bahwa setiap karya ciptaan di definisikan secara spesifik, jika disandingkan dengan kata “tanda berupa gambar” pada definisi merek Undang-undang Nomor 15 Tahun 2001 tentang Merek memiliki pengertian yang sangat luas, dikarenakan pengertian gambar tidaklah menjabarkan secara spesifik makna dari kata “LOGO” yang tertuang pada Pasal 65 Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta dan dalam Undang-undang Merek sekarang ini belum ada definisi penjelasan tentang LOGO

Dari sini kita tahu bahwa pengertian gambar itu sangat luas. Bukan hanya dan objek gambar itu saja yang beragam, tapi alat, media dan teknik menggambar pun bermacam-macam. Untuk itu perlunya penjelasan secara spesifik pengertian tentang Logo pada definisi merek Undang-undang No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek, dikarenakan pada Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta pada Pasal 65 menyebutkan secara jelas “Pencatatan Ciptaan tidak dapat dilakukan terhadap seni lukis yang berupa logo atau tanda pembeda yang digunakan sebagai merek dalam perdagangan barang/jasa atau digunakan sebagai lambang organisasi, badan usaha, atau badan hukum.” Mengingat produk hukum HKI dalam hal ini Undang-undang No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta dan Undang-undang No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek, sangat memunginkan terjadinya perbedaan penafsiran dan penerapanya, maka dari itu perlu di selaraskan dan di integrasikan produk hukum HKI yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Kiranya bisa sebagai pertimbangan untuk kedepannya apabila akan me-revisi Undang-undang No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek.

Referensi :

  1. Undang-undang 19 Tahun 2002 Tentang Hak Cipta
  2. Undang-undang 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta
  3. Undang-undang 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek
  4. http://e-tutorial.dgip.go.id/pengertian-hak-kekayaan-intelektual/
  5. http://elib.unikom.ac.id/files/disk1/572/jbptunikompp-gdl-tonyvancha-28556-10-unikom_t-i.pdf
  6. http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/29074/4/Chapter%20I.pdf
 
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Posted by on February 6, 2015 in Office

 

UU No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta Terbaru

Rancangan Undang-Undang Hak Cipta telah ditetapkan menjadi undang-undang Hak Cipta yang baru yaitu UU No. 28 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hak Cipta dan disahkan pada tanggal 16 Oktober 2014, menggantikan undang-undang Hak Cipta sebelumnya yaitu UU No. 19 Tahun 2002. Ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan yang dapat kita pelajari antara lain :

1. Penambahan beberapa definisi
2. Pencatatan Ciptaan dan Produk Hak Terkait
3. Masa Berlaku Perlindungan
4. Hak Cipta dan Hak Terkait melalui sarana berbasis teknologi informasi
5. Pembatasan Hak Cipta
6. Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional dan Ciptaan
7. Hak Cipta, Hak Terkait, Hak Moral dan Hak Ekonomi
8. Lembaga Manajemen Kolektif / Lembaga Manajemen Kolektif Nasional
9. Penyelesaian sengketa
10. dll
Untuk lebih jelasnya dapat di lihat dan di unduh pada laman http://www.dgip.go.id atau klik disini

 

 
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Posted by on October 20, 2014 in Office

 

RUU Hak Cipta Disahkan “Mematikan” Hak Ekonomi Insan Perfilman Indonesia

Lagi seru dan hangatnya pemberitaan di media masa mengenai pengesahan Rancangan Undang-Undang Hak Cipta (RUU Hak Cipta) oleh DPR tanggal 16 September 2014 yang lalu Sumber : DetikNews . Mengapa saya memberikan judul pada artikel kali ini menggunakan kata “Mematikan” Hak Ekonomi Insan Perfilman Indonesia? Memang sedikit agak “mengerikan”, tentunya ada alasan tersendiri terhadap makna kata tersebut. Bisa dibilang mungkin saya orang yang pertama kali menganalisis RUU Hak Cipta tersebut kali ini. Bisa dibilang RUU Hak Cipta kali ini “Pure” mengadopsi dari Korea Copyright Act. Bisa dibilang kurangnya pemahaman maksud dan tujuan dalam proses peng-adopsian setiap pasal-pasal yang tertuang di Korea Copyright Act. Mengapa saya bisa katakan begitu? karena saya terlibat walau tidak secara langsung terhadap penyebaran “Ide” pembuatan RUU Hak Cipta kali ini dengan memberikan contoh Korea Copyright Act hanya kepada “satu” orang pejabat di Ditjen HKI yang diharapkan sebagai bahan pertimbangan dan komparasi dari negara-negara lain. Saya merupakan satu-satunya staf di Ditjen HKI yang ditugaskan mengemban ilmu cukup lama mengenai sistem Hak Cipta di Korea selama 6 (enam) bulan. Oleh karena itu saya sangat paham dan mengerti konsep dari Korea Copyright Act tersebut sampai proses penerapannya. Disamping itu adanya masalah sangat terlalu pelik pada sistem birokrasi di negeri ini dan sangat memungkinkan perbedaan persepsi terhadap maksud, tujuan dan inti dari Korea Copyright Act. Taukah anda apa yang dimaksud “Mematikan” dalam artikel saya kali ini?

Oke… mari kita telisik terlebih dahulu beberapa pasal RUU Hak Cipta yang sudah disahkan oleh DPR disandingkan dengan Korea Copyright Act :

RUU Hak Cipta

BAB I KETENTUAN UMUM

Pasal 1 terdapat definisi :

6. Pelaku Pertunjukan adalah aktor, penyanyi, pemusik, penari, atau mereka yang secara sendiri-sendiri atau bersama‑sama menampilkan dan mempertunjukan suatu Ciptaan atau produk Hak Terkait.

7. Produser Fonogram adalah orang atau badan hukum yang pertama kali merekam dan memiliki tanggung jawab untuk melaksanakan perekaman suara atau perekaman bunyi, baik perekaman pertunjukan maupun perekaman suara atau bunyi lain.

8. Lembaga Penyiaran adalah penyelenggara Penyiaran, baik lembaga Penyiaran publik, lembaga Penyiaran swasta, lembaga Penyiaran komunitas maupun lembaga Penyiaran berlangganan yang dalam melaksanakan tugas, fungsi, dan tanggung jawabnya sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan.

14. Fonogram adalah Fiksasi suara pertunjukan atau suara lainnya, atau representasi suara, yang tidak termasuk bentuk Fiksasi yang tergabung dalam sinematografi atau Ciptaan audiovisual lainnya.

15. Penyiaran adalah pentransmisian suatu Ciptaan atau produk Hak Terkait tanpa kabel sehingga dapat diterima oleh semua orang di lokasi yang jauh dari tempat transmisi berasal.

BAB III HAK TERKAIT

 

Pasal 23

1. Pelaku Pertunjukan mempunyai hak ekonomi.

2. Hak ekonomi Pelaku Pertunjukan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) meliputi hak melaksanakan sendiri, memberikan izin, atau melarang pihak lain untuk melakukan:

a) Penyiaran atau Pengomunikasian atas pertunjukan Pelaku Pertunjukan;

b) Fiksasi dari pertunjukannya yang belum difiksasi;

c) Penggandaan atas Fiksasi pertunjukannya dengan cara atau bentuk apapun;

d) Pendistribusian atas Fiksasi pertunjukan atau salinannya;

e) penyewaan atas Fiksasi pertunjukan atau salinannya kepada publik; dan

f) penyediaan atas Fiksasi pertunjukan yang dapat diakses publik.

3. Penyiaran atau Pengomunikasian sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) huruf a tidak berlaku terhadap:

a) hasil Fiksasi pertunjukan yang telah diberi izin oleh Pelaku Pertunjukan; atau

b) Penyiaran atau Pengomunikasian kembali yang telah diberi izin oleh Lembaga Penyiaran yang pertama kali mendapatkan izin pertunjukan.

4. Pendistribusian sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) huruf d tidak berlaku terhadap karya pertunjukan yang telah:

a) difiksasi;

b) dijual; atau

c) dialihkan kepemilikannya,oleh Pelaku Pertunjukan kepada orang lain.

Pasal 24

1. Produser Fonogram mempunyai hak ekonomi

2. Hak ekonomi Produser Fonogram sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) meliputi hak melaksanakan sendiri, memberikan izin, atau melarang pihak lain untuk melakukan:

a) Penggandaan atas Fonogram dengan cara atau bentuk apapun;

b) Pendistribusian atas Fonogram asli atau salinannya;

c) penyewaan kepada publik atas salinan Fonogram; dan

d) penyediaan atas Fonogram dengan atau tanpa kabel yang dapat diakses publik.

3. Pendistribusian sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) huruf b, tidak berlaku terhadap salinan Fiksasi atas pertunjukan yang telah dijual atau yang telah dialihkan kepemilikannya oleh Produser Fonogram kepada pihak lain.

4. Setiap Orang yang melaksanakan hak ekonomi Produser Fonogram sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) wajib mendapatkan izin dari Produser Fonogram.

Pasal 25

1. Lembaga Penyiaran mempunyai hak ekonomi

2. Hak ekonomi Lembaga Penyiaran sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) meliputi hak melaksanakan sendiri, memberikan izin, atau melarang pihak lain untuk melakukan:

a) Penyiaran ulang siaran;

b) Pengomunikasian siaran;

c) Fiksasi siaran; dan/atau

d) Penggandaan Fiksasi siaran.

3. Setiap Lembaga Penyiaran berlangganan dilarang untuk melakukan penyebarluasan tanpa izin atas konten karya siaran Lembaga Penyiaran lain.

 

Korea Copyright Act

CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2 (Definitions)

4. “Performers” shall mean the persons who express a work by acting, dancing, musical playing, singing, narrating, reciting, or other artistic means, or who express something other than a work by a similar method including the persons who conduct, direct, or supervise performances;

5. “Phonograms” shall mean the media in which the sound (which refers to voice or sound effect herein; the same hereinafter) is fixed (excluding those in which the sound is fixed together with some visual images);

6. “Phonogram producers” shall mean the persons who plan and assume responsibility for the fixation of sound on phonograms;

8. “Broadcasting” shall mean, among public transmission, the transmission of sounds, images, or sounds and images intended for simultaneous reception by the public;

9. “Broadcasting organizations” shall mean the persons engaged in the broadcasting business;

13. “Cinematographic works” shall mean the creative production in which a series of images (regardless of whether or not accompanied by sound) are collected, and which can be played by mechanical or electronic devices and can be seen, or both seen and heard;

14. “Producers of cinematographic works” shall mean the persons who plan and assume responsibility for the production of cinematographic works;

CHAPTER 3. NEIGHBORING RIGHTS

SECTION 2. RIGHTS OF PERFORMERS
Article 66 (Right to Indicate the Performer’s Name)
Article 67 (Right to Preserve the Integrity)
Article 68 (Inalienability of Performer’s Moral Rights)
Article 69 (Right of Reproduction)
Article 70 (Right of Distribution)
Article 71 (Right of Rental)
Article 72 (Right of Public Performance)
Article 73 (Right of Broadcasting of Performances)
Article 74 (Right of Interactive Transmission)
Article 75 (Remuneration by Broadcasting Organizations to Performers)
Article 76 (Remuneration by Digital Sound Transmission Organizations to Performers)
Article 76-2 (Remuneration by Parties Doing Public Performances Using Commercial Phonograms to Performers)
Article 77 (Joint Performers)

SECTION 3. RIGHTS OF PRODUCERS OF PHONOGRAMS
Article 78 (Right of Reproduction)
Article 79 (Right of Distribution)
Article 80 (Right of Rental)
Article 81 (Right of Interactive Transmission)
Article 82 (Remuneration by Broadcasting Organizations to Producers of Phonograms)
Article 83 (Remuneration by Digital Sound Transmission Organizations to Producers of Phonograms)
Article 83-2 (Remuneration by Parties Doing Public Performances Using Commercial Phonograms to Producers of Phonograms)

SECTION 4. RIGHTS OF BROADCASTING ORGANIZATIONS
Article 84 (Right of Reproduction)
Article 85 (Right of Simultaneous Relay)

CHAPTER 5. SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING CINEMATOGRAPHIC WORKS

Article 99 (Cinematization of Works)

(1) If the owner of author’s property rights authorizes a person to cinematize his work, it shall be presumed that such authorization includes each of the following rights, unless otherwise stipulated :
1. To dramatize a work for the production of a cinematographic work;
2. To publicly present a cinematographic work for the purpose of public presentation;
3. To broadcast a cinematographic work for the purpose of broadcasting;
4. To interactively transmit a cinematographic work for the purpose of interactive transmission;
5. To reproduce and distribute a cinematographic work for its original purpose; and
6. To use the translation of a cinematographic work in the same way as applied to such cinematographic work.
(2) If the owner of author’s property rights authorizes a person to exploit his work by means of cinematization, unless otherwise stipulated, he may authorize, after the lapse of five years from the date of his authorization, a cinematization of the work in another form of cinematographic work.

Article 100 (Rights in Cinematographic Works)

(1) If a person, who has agreed with a producer of a cinematographic work to cooperate in the production of a cinematographic work, obtains the copyright for such cinematographic work, it shall be presumed that the rights necessary for the use of such cinematographic work are transferred to the producer of such cinematographic work, unless otherwise stipulated.
(2) Author’s property rights in a novel, play, work of art, or musical work used for the production of a cinematographic work shall not be affected by the provision of Paragraph (1).
(3) As regards the use of a cinematographic work regarding a performer who has agreed with a
producer of such cinematographic work to cooperate for the production of such cinematographic work, it shall be presumed that the right of reproduction pursuant to Article 69, the right of distribution pursuant to Article 70, the right of broadcasting pursuant to Article 73, and the right of interactive transmission pursuant to Article 74 are transferred to the producer of such cinematographic work, unless otherwise stipulated.

Article 101 (Rights of Producers of Cinematographic Works)

(1) Rights necessary for the use of a cinematographic work, which are transferred to the producer of a cinematographic work from the person who has agreed to cooperate for the production of such cinematographic work, shall represent the rights to reproduce, distribute, publicly present, broadcast, interactively transmit, or use by other means such cinematographic work, and may be transferred or be the object of a pledge.
(2) Rights that are transferred to the producer of a cinematographic work from a performer shall represent the rights to reproduce, distribute, broadcast, or interactively transmit such cinematographic work, and may be transferred or be the object of pledge.

Dari pemaparan beberapa pasal RUU Hak Cipta yang sudah disahkan oleh DPR disandingkan dengan Korea Copyright Act, dapat kita lihat dengan jelas bahwa tidak adanya definisi yang jelas terhadap karya cipta Sinematografi dan hal-hal berupa pasal yang mengatur tentang hak ekonomi bagi pelaku maupun Produser Sinematografi. Tidak diaturnya pasal Sinematografi / Perfilman akan berdampak terhadap pelaksanaanya di kemudian hari. Tidak ada pasal tempat bernaung para insan perfilman Indonesia yang memang berkerja khusus dibidang perfilman untuk melindungi hak ciptanya. Disisi lain, ketika tidak diaturnya terhadap hak ekonominya, sangat dimungkinkan terjadi sengketa antara pihak terkait lainnya. Tidak adanya hak mewakili untuk mereproduksi, mendistribusikan, menyiarkan, atau menggunakan dengan cara lain karya sinematografi tersebut, dengan kata lain pelaku maupun Produser Sinematografi di Indonesia hanya siap untuk menerima perjanjian jual putus hasil karya sinematografinya, dan tentunya itu sedikit tidak menguntungkan bukan? Sekian.

Berikut contoh gambar skema logikal proses

Skema Logikal Proses

 
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Posted by on September 30, 2014 in Office